Please note that this site is an archive. The most up-to-date material is at: https://www.scar.org/science/gsg/home/ .

SCAR GSSG - History of the GIANT Work Program

Updated: Tue 21 Oct 2003

HISTORY OF THE GIANT PROGRAM


The Work Programs for the previous 8 years are here.

The 2000-2002 Work Program
The 1998-2000 Work Program
The 1996-98 Work Program and
The 1994-96 Work Program


THE GIANT 2000-2002 WORK PROGRAM

GIANT NEWSLETTERS

News of GIANT activities are now being reported in a WG-GGI newsletter



There are eight projects in the GIANT Program, these are:

  1. Permanent Geodetic Observatories;
  2. Crustal Deformation Network;
  3. Physical Geodesy;
  4. Geodetic Control Database;
  5. Tide Gauge Data;
  6. Atmospheric Impact on GPS Observations in Antarctica;
  7. Remote Geodetic Observatories; and
  8. New Geodetic Satellite Missions

Program Coordinator: Mr John Manning

Program Objectives:

  1. Provide a common geographic reference system for all Antarctic scientists and operators.
  2. Contribute to global geodesy for the study of the physical processes of the earth and the maintenance of the precise terrestrial reference frame
  3. Provide information for monitoring the horizontal and vertical motion of the Antarctic.

A list of the activities within each project of the GIANT Program for the period 2000 to 2002 is given below, the Project Leader and Collaborators are also identified.


1. Permanent Geodetic Observatories

Project Leader: Australia - Mr John Manning

Collaborator:

Goal: To develop an infrastructure of permanent geodetic stations to bring all individual geodetic networks to a common datum, and to provide geodetic information for the global monitoring and analysis of natural earth processes.

Activities:

  1. Facilitate on-line satellite data retrieval from established ground stations
  2. Extend the network of permanent geodetic observatories which provide data for crustal deformation studies
  3. Post details of all permanent sites on web site
  4. Develop and publish GPS base station specifications, including guidelines for monumentation
  5. Facilitate survey of accurate local ties between collocated techniques and web access
  6. Collaborate with other SCAR scientists to identify requirements for space geodetic sites
    - for manned stations
    - for remote locations

2. Crustal Deformation Network

Project Leader: Germany - Prof Reinhard Dietrich

Collaborators: Italy, Chile, Japan, China, Australia, USA

Goals:

1. To densify the geodetic infrastructure established from the permanent observatories; and

2. To develop a deformation model for surface movement vectors within a common Antarctic reference frame.

Activities:

  1. Co-ordinate annual epoch campaigns
  2. Maintain orderly data archive and data access from these campaigns
  3. Identify and coordinate integration of regional campaigns
  4. Facilitate GPS connections to tide gauge bench marks
  5. Deliver results to ITRF in conjunction with results from permanent observatories
  6. Collaboration with appropriate IAG Antarctic Crustal Deformation Sub-Commission
  7. Integration of solutions using ITRF guidelines
  8. Develop and place on the web guidelines for ground mark monuments

3. Physical Geodesy

Project Leader: Italy - Prof Alessandro Capra

Collaborators: Germany, Australia, Russia, USA, Japan, Canada

Goal: Compilation and analysis of physical geodesy data, for the development of a new high resolution Geoid for the Antarctic.

Activities:

  1. Compilation of geodetic data and a gravimetric database
  2. Collaboration with IAG Antarctic Gravity project and SCAR Solid Earth Working Group
  3. Analysis and validation of observations and database specifically BEDMAP, RAMP (AMM1 & 2), airborne radar profiles
  4. Develop a simulation model & geoid model on a test area in North Victoria Land, in collaboration with IGES.
  5. Coordinate with Project 8 on new satellite gravity data mission

4. Geodetic Control Database

Click on this image to access the Geodetic Control Database of Antarctica

Project Leader: New Zealand - Mr John Ritchie

Collaborator: Australia, Russia

Goal: Establish a master index for Antarctic positional control, including all levels of accuracy

Activities:

  1. Develop high level metadata index on location of all control (including significant tide gauges) and contact for each site on WG-GGI web site
  2. Develop a template for a distributed detailed data base including
    - Control identification information
    - Tide gauge connection information

5. Tide Gauge Data

Project Leader: Japan - Dr Kazuo Shibuya

Collaborators: Australia, China, Germany, New Zealand, Italy, Russia, USA (Amos), UK (Woodworth), other specialists as required

Goal: To consolidate the collection of and access to Antarctic tide gauge information

Activities

  1. Gather information on history of establishment and operation of Antarctic tide gauges
  2. Research and list all permanent and significant tide gauges established for hydrographic information and scientific studies. [Also available is tide gauge instrumentation information and tide gauge reference information
  3. List all known sea level determinations, dates and accuracy estimates for all significant tide gauges
  4. Identify benchmark values and connections to GPS observations sites
  5. Facilitate index data into the Geodetic data base
  6. Facilitate the delivery of data to the Southern Ocean Sea Level Centre [SOSLC]
  7. Post meta data on web
  8. 2002 – 2004 (Facilitate guidelines on establishment and calibrating on bottom mounted and acoustic type gauges in Antarctic conditions)

6. Atmospheric Impact on GPS Observations in Antarctica

Project Leader: Poland - Dr Jan Cisak

Collaborators: Germany, Italy, USA, Australia (IPS), Norway, China

Goal: To understand the iononspheric and tropospheric impact of the atmosphere on the quality of GPS observations in Antarctica

Activities:

  1. Facilitate access to GPS observations from permanent GPS sites and SCAR GPS epoch campigns for computation of atmospheric delay to GPS signals
  2. Research impact of differing levels of solar and meteorological activity on Antarctic GPS observations
  3. Report on participation in international studies
  4. Report on project findings
  5. Develop recommendations for future GPS observations to minimise impact on GPS network surveys

7. Remote Geodetic Observatories

Project Leader: USA - Mr Larry Hothem

Collaborators: Japan (GSI), Australia, Italy, Netherlands (Swartz)

Goal: To identify technology for the deployment of GPS equipment at unattended remote Antarctic localities for regional densification of geodetic infrastructure, and for scientific studies of surface geodynamics.

Activities:

  1. Monitor and report on use of solar, wind and other methods of power generation
  2. Monitor and report on developments for retrieval of data from remote sites by satellite communication techniques
  3. Prepare status report at the end of each austral summer summarising developments being undertaken by researcher in countries such as the USA, Australia, Japan, Netherlands.

8. New Geodetic Satellite Missions

Project Leader: Germany - Prof Reinhard Dietrich

Collaborators: Italy, Australia, USA (U of Texas)

Goal: To ensure new satellite missions are integrated with the Antarctic geodetic system

Activities:

  1. To identify and report on new satellite missions that will provide geodetic data or require geodetic support
  2. To provide calibration / validation data for these missions from ground truth observations, where appropriate
  3. Liaison with satellite mission principal investigators and GoS ANTEC
  4. Facilitate the transfer of satellite mission data to the Antarctic community

THE GIANT 1998-2000 WORK PROGRAM

Including GIANT Newsletters from this period


  1. Permanent Geodetic Observatories;
  2. GPS Epoch Campaigns;
  3. Physical Geodesy;
  4. GLONASS Evaluation;
  5. Differential GPS Base Stations;
  6. Remote Geodetic Observatories; and
  7. Information Access

Program Coordinator: Mr John Manning

Program Objectives:

  1. Provide a common geographic reference system for all Antarctic scientists and operators.
  2. Contribute to global geodesy for the study of the physical processes of the earth and the maintenance of the precise terrestrial reference frame
  3. Provide information for monitoring the horizontal and vertical motion of the Antarctic.

A summary of the Geodetic Infrastructure of Antarctic (GIANT) program for the period 1998 to 2000 is given below, the first mentioned member will be the respective project leader for each project, assisted by other members identified for close co-operation in that project.

1. Permanent Geodetic Observatories (Project Leaders: John Manning, Australia, Hans Werner Schenke, Germany)

Goal: To develop an infrastructure of permanent geodetic stations to bring all individual geodetic networks to a common datum, and to provide geodetic information for the global monitoring of natural earth processes.

Key activities:

2. GPS Epoch Campaigns (Reinhard Dietrich, Germany, Andres Zakrajsek, Argentina, Kevin Dixon, UK, Michel Le Pape France, E Dongchen, China, Hector Rovera, Uruguay, Alessandro Capri)

Goal: To densify the geodetic infrastructure established from the permanent observatories. This will includes links to individual geodetic networks, tide gauges and the computation of surface movement vectors within a common Antarctic reference frame.

Key activities:

3. Physical Geodesy (Alessandro Capra, Italy, Lars Sjoberg, Sweden, Andres Zakrajsek Argentina, Hans Werner Schenke, Germany, John Manning, Australia)

Goal: Collection and analysis of physical geodesy data, for the development of a new high resolution Geoid for the Antarctic.

Key activities:

4. GLONASS Evaluation (John Manning, Australia, Larry Hothem, USA)

Goal: Evaluate the benefit of GLONASS for global geodesy, Antarctic geodesy and navigation applications in Antarctica.

Key activities:

5. Differential GPS Base Stations (Larry Hothem, USA, Hans Werner Schenke, Germany, IHO, Kevin Dixon, UK, Jan Cisak, Poland, Alessandro Capra, Italy)

Goal: To increase the utility of Geodetic GPS base stations by making DGPS corrections available for radio transmission for scientific field and operational use.

Key activities:

6. Remote Geodetic Observatories (Larry Hothem, USA, Alessandro Capra, Italy, John Manning, Australia)

Goal: To deploy GPS equipment at unattended remote Antarctic localities for regional densification of geodetic infrastructure, and for scientific studies of surface geodynamics. This requires remote power input and data retrieval. This technology is not quite available at present and needs further development.

Key activities:

7. Information Access (John Manning, Australia, All members of GIANT program)

Goal: To publicise and distribute results of GIANT activities to the general Antarctic community.

Key activities:


GEODESY (GIANT) 1996-98 WORK PROGRAM
Geodetic Infrastructure for Antarctica (GIANT)

Convenor :
Australia

Collaborators :

Brazil, Chile, China, France, Germany, Italy, NZ, Poland, Sweden, South Africa, Uruguay

Objective :

Establish a zero order geodetic framework for all spatial data within a global reference system

Analyse and provide geodetic data to meet physical geodesy requirements for temporal variations

Description :

There are four program elements, each has a separate project leader responsible for the sub program over the next two years. These sub program elements are :
  1. PERMANENT NETWORKS & OBSERVATORIES (John Manning, Australia)

    Objective & Target Outputs

  2. GPS EPOCH CAMPAIGNS (Reinhard Dietrich, Germany)

    Objective & Target Outputs

  3. ANTARCTIC GEOID & GRAVITY (Lars Sjoberg, Sweden)

    Objective & Target Outputs
    Further Details (including maps)

  4. ANTARCTIC GEODYNAMICS (John Manning, Australia)

    Objective & Target Outputs


GEODESY (GIANT) 1994-96 WORK PROGRAM
Geodetic Infrastructure for Antarctica (GIANT)

Description :

In the 1994-96 Work Program there were eight program elements, each having a separate project leader responsible for the sub program over the two year period. These sub program elements are :
  1. PERMANENT OBSERVATORIES (John Manning, Australia)
    • Support installation of GPS sites at SANAE, King George Island and Palmer.
    • VLBI antenna upgrades at Syowa and McMurdo and
    • Produce regional precise orbits and daily positional solutions for all permanent GPS sites.
    Further Details

  2. GPS EPOCH CAMPAIGNS (Reinhard Dietrich, Germany)
    • Coordinate field observation for epoch surveys in 1995 and 1996.
    • Arrange for processing of field data and publication of results.
    • Investigate integration of GPS campaigns into local geodetic networks.
    • Publish results of SCAR1990-92 and SCAR95 epoch campaigns.
    • Finalise analysis of SCAR96.
    • Coordinate 1997 GPS surveys, and
    • Plan SCAR98 (re-occupation of SCAR95 epoch sites).
    Further Details

  3. SEA LEVEL (IHO/Australia)
    • In conjunction with GLOSS (IHO/IOC) develop data base of geodetic connection information to coastal benchmarks.
    • Research and distribute technical informations on tide gauges suitable for use in sea ice environments.
    Further Details - Tide Gauge Information: Antarctica

  4. ANTARCTIC GEOID & GRAVITY (Lars Sjoberg, Sweden)
    • Review available data and models
    • ground truthing of models.
    • Support projects to improve gravity data.
    • zero order network
    • absolute
    • relative
    • super conducting
    • obtain data suitable for determination of a geoid with better than one metre accuracy.
  5. GEODYNAMICS (John Manning, Australia)
    • Determine and publish site velocities for permanent observatory and epoch campaign sites.
  6. GEODETIC DIRECTORY (South Africa)
    • Liaise with other working group and sub programs for data/information distribution
    • Identification of products required by users
    • Index of gravity information
    • Reference frames applicable to Antarctica
    • Index Antarctic physical geodesy information
    • Provide geodetic data base information into Directory of Geographic Information
    • Investigate feasibility of compendum of geodetic networks
  7. REAL TIME DGPS STATIONS (Germany/IHO)
    • Develop a coordination model for marine/aircraft/science fieldwork
    • Research suitable Base Station standards for joint applications
  8. PHYSICAL GEODESY (France/Australia)
    • Liaison with earth science groups
    • Examine surface plate dynamics within Antarctica
    • Analyse results of GPS campaigns for site velocities
    • Identify possible secondary GPS sites